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Great Fires: 1906 Great Earthquake & Fire

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Appendix A.
Earthquake in California, April 18, 1906
Special Report of Maj. Gen. Adolphus W. Greely, U. S. A., Commanding the Pacific Division

Cross official at each station in order to consider and provide for any exceptional cases of distress or destitution that may arise. This action is taken in view of the increased facilities for obtaining food, large numbers of stores having been opened, and from the belief that this will not work special hardship upon those previously obtaining food. Issues will, however, be continued to people living at such camps under military supervision as in the opinion of the officer in charge require daily issues for the proper needs of the occupants.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Acting Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 28.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., May 13, 1906.

1. Reports of inspectors indicate occasional neglect on the part of some enlisted men in the army in connection with the relief work now progressing under military supervision.
2. The division commander enjoins upon every officer the duty of adopting severe disciplinary measures in the case of any man found guilty of intoxication, personal affront, or such specific neglects of duty as may impair the efficiency of relief measures. The taking of food or clothing and laxity of guard duty over stores in charge are particularly to be prevented. No soldiers shall be fed, clothed, or sheltered at any station at the expense of the relief fund, except on application of his commanding officer to the Red Cross, and then only in very exceptional cases approved by the division commander.
3. Since April 18 the deportment and conduct of the enlisted men as a whole have been of such very high character that not half a dozen complaints of misconduct have been made from civilian sources. It only remains for the great body of troops to see that the few indifferent men in the service rise to the standard of efficiency and excellent service rendered by the army as a whole.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Acting Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 29.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., May 13, 1906.

I. The limits of the permanent camps established in the city of San Francisco under the provisions of paragraph 6, General Orders, No. 23, current series, Pacific Division, are prescribed as follows:
Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 within the limits of the Presidio Military Reservation. These camps are located on the reservation as follows:
1. On the plain between the General Hospital and Lombard street gate.

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2. In that part of the reservation known as Tennessee Hollow.
3. The Chinese camp at Fort Winfield Scott.
4. On Presidio golf links, near Central avenue gate.
Nos. 5, 6, and 7. In Golden Gate Park.
5. Beginning at a point on the South Drive, opposite Fifth avenue, thence in a northerly direction along wire fence bounding west end of Deer Park, to the Deer Park road; thence in a westerly direction, along road to junction of road with Middle Drive; thence in a southwesterly direction along Middle Drive to Lone Tree; thence in a northwesterly direction along South Drive to a point at junction of South Drive and road to Japanese Village; thence in a southerly direction to point on Bridle path opposite Eleventh avenue; thence in an easterly direction along path and South Drive to point of beginning.
6. Beginning at a point at junction of east end of Speed Road and Main Drive; thence in a northwesterly direction along Main Drive to a point 200 feet in a perpendicular line from Speed Road; thence in a westerly direction along line parallel to Speed Road to a point 2,700 feet distant from point of beginning; thence turning an angle of 90 degrees to the left to a point 200 feet south of Speed Road; thence in an easterly direction on a line parallel to Speed Road 2,700 feet to a point; thence in a northerly direction 200 feet to point of beginning.
7. Beginning at a point at junction of Main Drive and Stanyan street; thence north along Stanyan street to Hayes; thence in a northwesterly direction along path. North Ridge road and path to the Sixth avenue entrance on north boundary of park; thence in a southerly direction to Main Drive; thence in a southeasterly direction along Main Drive to Bicycle Rest; thence in a southerly direction past the Lily Pond to Middle Drive; thence east and south on Middle Drive and road between Deer Park and Children's Playgrounds to South Drive; thence east and northeast along South Drive to point of beginning.
8. Starting at junction of Baker street and North Point street; thence east to Laguna; thence south on Pierce street to Chestnut street; thence west on Chestnut street to Broderick; thence north to Francisco street; thence west to Baker street; thence north to North Point street, to point of beginning.
9. All the ground within Lobos Square.
10. East by line parallel to and one-half block east of Tennessee street, north by Eighteenth street, south by line parallel to and one-half block south to Twentieth street, west by line parallel to and one-half block west of Minnesota avenue.
13. Franklin Park and vacant block adjoining. Includes all ground between Sixteenth street on the north, Seventeenth street on the south, Potrero avenue on the east, and Bryant avenue on the west.
15. On Fort Mason Military Reservation.

II. Lieut. Col. R. K. Evans, 5th Infantry, is placed in general charge of these camps, and will be known as "commander of permanent camps."
III. Lieut. Col. Geo. H. Torney, deputy surgeon-general, U. S. A., is hereby appointed chief sanitary officer and will be under the exclusive orders of the division commander.

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IV. The following troops having been previously assigned by the department commander (General Orders, No. 35, current series, Department of California) as sanitary police force, are hereby placed under the exclusive control of the division commander and under the immediate orders of the commander of permanent camps:

First Squadron, First Cavalry (Troops A, B, C, and D), and Companies B, D, E, and F of the 10th Infantry. Also of the following extra officers: Capt. E. Wittenmyer, 5th Infantry; Capt. M. J. Lenihan, 25th Infantry; Capt. A. B. Shattuck, 25th Infantry; Capt. E. B. Cassatt, 13th Cavalry; Capt. O. J. Charles, 17th Infantry; Capt. P. W. Davison, 22d Infantry; Capt. E. L. King, 2d Cavalry, and Capt. C. W. Castle, 30th Infantry.
These officers and troops will be assigned to duty in the various camps by the commander of permanent camps so as best to exercise proper control.
V. The area within the limits of the permanent camps will be under the control of the commander of permanent camps. Each camp will be under the immediate command of the officer assigned thereto by him.
VI. As far as practicable a medical officer of the Army will be assigned as sanitary officer of each camp. He will report to the commanding officer of the designated camp for duty. His relation to the commanding officer will be similar to that of post surgeon to post commander. He will submit to the commanding officer of the camp an estimate for the necessary labor and material to render and to keep the camp to which he is assigned in a sanitary condition; and will make requisitions for medical supplies and disinfectants direct upon the chief sanitary officer, who will, after action thereon, direct the issue thereof from the medical depot.
VII. Such number of enlisted men of the Hospital Corps as may be considered absolutely necessary by the chief sanitary officer will be assigned to assist the sanitary officer of each camp. He will make a daily sanitary report to the chief sanitary officer through the camp commander, who will furnish copies of this report to the officer in charge of permanent camps and to the district commander within which his camp is located.
VIII. The areas covered by the permanent camps thus established are hereby withdrawn from the control of district or post commanders, and the commanding officers of the camps are made entirely responsible for discipline, sanitation, and the carrying out of all regulations prescribed for troops on duty in the camps, and for refugees within these limits. District commanders when called upon by camp commanders will give such temporary assistance as may be necessary.
IX. All persons sheltered in permanent camps will render prompt and implicit obedience to the camp commander in regard to matters of decency, order, and sanitation. Any one failing to comply with such orders will be ejected from the camp. Any person ejected from a camp under military control for failure to obey proper orders of the camp commander will not be admitted to any other military camp. The names of ejected persons will be reported to the commander of permanent camps.
X. Commanding officers of permanent camps will submit requisitions to the proper authorities for food and clothing. They will

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also, upon recommendation of the camp's sanitary officer, make requisition for special diet foods for infants and invalids direct upon the officer in charge of the special diet depot at Moulder's School, corner of Page and Gough streets. After such requisitions have been acted upon there by the officer specially designated for that purpose, the supplies will be issued from that depot. It is to be understood that these supplies are to be used solely for infants and invalids in the camps.
XI. The entire responsibility for the sanitation of all permanent camps and all the area within the limits of military reservations is assumed by the division commander. The chief sanitary officer is made responsible for such assignment of medical officers of the Army as will most efficiently control sanitary matters within these limits. No responsibility will be assumed by him or any other medical officer of the Army of sanitation outside of the limits thus prescribed, except in cases specifically authorized in each case by the division commander. Advice may be given where it is asked, but their responsibility terminates with the limits here prescribed for the proper field of action, and their entire energies will be devoted to the work thus prescribed. All garbage and other refuse of the camps will be taken to points outside of the camps designated by the sanitary officer from which it is the duty of the city health department to see that it is promptly removed.
XII. Officers or other persons now in charge of camps will continue the work until it has been properly taken over by the camp commanders, and will turn over to them such records and other information as will enable them to continue the work already initiated with as little inconvenience to the destitute as possible and give them the necessary information for making comprehensive reports upon the manner in which the camps have been conducted.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Acting Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 31.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., May 23, 1906.

1. Paragraph 3, General Orders, No. 29; paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7, General Orders, No. 23, and paragraph XI, General Orders, No. 29, current series, these headquarters, are hereby revoked.
2. All reports pertaining to military camps will be made to the commanding general, Department of California.
3. All reports pertaining to permanent camps for refugees under control of the military authorities will be made through the camp commanders to Lieut. Col. R. K. Evans, 5th Infantry.
4. The chief surgeon, Department of California, is charged with the sanitary supervision of all reservations and camps under military control.

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5. Capt. Leigh A. Fuller, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., is hereby detailed for special sanitary work in permanent camps for refugees under military control and will report to Lieut. Col. R. K. Evans, 5th Infantry, for instructions.
6. Company A, Hospital Corps, and the field hospital connected therewith is hereby placed under the command of Lieut. Col. R. K. Evans, 5th Infantry, to whom the commanding officer will report for instructions.
7. The sanitation of all areas outside of military reservations and permanent camps under control of the military authorities hereafter devolves on the civil authorities.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 32.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., May 26, 1906.

Capt. William Mitchell, Signal Corps, and 28 men of Company A, Signal Corps, will stand relieved from further duty in this division June 1, 1906, and on that date proceed to Fort Leavenworth, Kans., their proper station.
The Quartermaster's Department will furnish the necessary transportation, the Subsistence Department suitable subsistence and necessary funds for purchase of liquid coffee, and the Medical Department proper medical attendance and supplies.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Acting Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 33.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., May 28, 1906.

I. (1) Upon receipt of this order, the water supply at each of the camps under military control will be tested as soon as possible to determine its fitness for drinking purposes.
(2) Weekly tests thereafter will be made for the same purpose.
(3) The chief surgeon, Department of California, is charged with the necessary arrangements for making the tests prescribed.
II. (1) The military districts established by General Orders, No. 25, headquarters Pacific Division, May 8, 1906, are hereby discontinued.
(2) The department commander will make such rearrangement of stations of troops as to permit regimental and other commanders to properly control their organizations, except such as have been, by

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orders from these headquarters, placed under the exclusive control of the division commander in connection with sanitation and in camps under military control; also such troops as are stationed temporarily in the city of Oakland, Cal.
(3) Duties in general to remain as at present, except that patrolling of streets and kindred work is to be discontinued.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Acting Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 34.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., May 29, 1906.

The 11th Infantry is relieved from further duty in this division and will proceed to Fort D. A. Russell, Wyo., its proper station.
Hour of departure and strength of command will be reported by telegraph to these headquarters.
The commanding general, Department of California, is charged with the details of this movement.
The Quartermaster's Department will furnish the necessary transportation, the Subsistence Department suitable subsistence, and the Medical Department proper medical attendance and supplies.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Acting Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 35.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., May 31, 1906.

Companies I and K, 14th Infantry, are relieved from further duty in this city and will proceed to Vancouver Barracks, Wash., their proper station.

Hour of departure and strength of command will be reported by telegraph to these headquarters.
The Quartermaster's Department will furnish the necessary transportation, the Subsistence Department suitable subsistence and necessary funds for purchase of liquid coffee, and the Medical Department proper medical attendance and supplies.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Acting Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

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GENERAL ORDERS, No. 40.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., June 28, 1906.

Troop I, 14th Cavalry, is withdrawn from relief work in this city June 30, 1906, and will be reported on that date to the commanding officer, Presidio of San Francisco, Cal.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Acting Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 42.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., July 2, 1906.

Since the troops and detailed officers which conditions of earthquake and fire brought into San Francisco are now gradually returning to their normal stations and duties, the division commander takes this opportunity to express his appreciation of the character and value of their services.

It is to be remarked that these duties brought together the largest force of the Army and Navy ever engaged in a nonmilitary service under the American flag. It thus follows that as this command represented typically the military forces of the nation, its conduct and bearing are of unusual interest.

On this duty have been employed two general officers, the 1st and 14th Cavalry, the 10th, 25th, 27th, 29th, 32d, 38th, 60th, 61st, 64th, 65th, 66th, 67th, 68th, 70th, and 105th Companies of the Coast Artillery, 1st, 9th, and 24th Batteries of Field Artillers, the 11th Battalion of Field Artillery (17th and 18th Mountain Batteries), 10th, 11th, 14th, 20th, and 22d Infantry, Companies C and D of the Corps of Engineers, Companies A and B of the Hospital Corps, Companies A, E, and H of the Signal Corps, 132 staff and detailed officers, among whom were selected representatives from every corps of the Army, including volunteers from the retired list. To these were added a command of blue jackets, a battalion of marines, and a force of naval apprentices.

The work done falls readily into two phases—the struggle to save the city of San Francisco from complete destruction by fire and the succoring of more than 300,000 suffering and destitute people. The heroic efforts of the army in the heart of the city under Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston, temporarily commanding the division, happily supplemented by the labors of the navy, under Admiral C. F. Goodrich, along the water front, saved the residential Western Addition and practically all the wharves fronting the bay. The efforts of this command from daybreak of April 18 to midnight of April 20 taxed to the utmost the physical strength, the nervous energy, and the good temper of every officer and man. Yet in this fearful disaster, with its accompanying confusion and excitement, no life was taken by any man of the Army or Navy. The work and its accompaniments were dramatic in the extreme.

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The labor of relief, recognized as beyond the law and assumed by the division commander from a sense of obligatory public duty, became regular by the official call for troops of the Governor of California, George C. Pardee, on the President under date of April 27, 1906.
This duty necessitated the care of nearly 350,000 people (313,117 were fed May 1), destitute in one way or another, in a city without local transportation, without food, with scant water, without sanitary facilities, and forced to cook all food on the public streets, while 200,000 had lost house, clothing, furniture, bedding, having saved as a rule only the clothing in which they stood.

It likewise involved repression of theft and violence by the vicious, noninterference with the liberty and acts of the ordinary citizen, discrimination in the distribution of food, enforcement of suitable sanitary methods, instruction in tent life (43,000 people yet live under canvas in this city), patient consideration, courteous deportment toward the homeless and destitute. Moreover, cooperation was demanded with other independent bodies, the State Guard, the municipal police, and the health commission.

The division commander learns with extreme satisfaction that the personal behavior and performance of duty of the army, of the navy, and of the marine corps have elicited general satisfaction and unstinted praise, especially from the Governor of California, the Mayor of San Francisco, the Federal officials, the Citizens' Committee, and the city press. The very rare neglects of duty and breaches of discipline merely emphasize the extremely high character of the command as a whole.

The division commander commends the adaptability and resourcefulness shown by officers and men in dealing with novel and unprecedented conditions, their consideration and thoughtfulness in alleviating distress, their unvarying courtesy to all, and their uncomplaining devotion to the community and its interests.

These services have anew exemplified the admirable attributes of the American Army, officers and men, which insure the successful application of its moral, intellectual, and physical powers to novel and difficult duties.

The record of this command in San Francisco must reflect high credit on the Army as a whole, indicating, as it does, that the soldier of the twentieth century worthily upholds in time of peril the honor of the nation.

By command of Major-General Greely:
W. G. HAAN,
Captain, General Staff, Acting Chief of Staff.
Official:
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

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II. REPORTS OF SUBORDINATE OFFICERS.

Reports of Lieut. Col. John P. Wisser, Artillery Corps, U. S. A.,
Acting Inspector-General.

HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION,
San Francisco, Cal., July 12, 1906.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in compliance with letter of instructions appended (marked A), dated headquarters Pacific Division, June 25, 1906, I have made an inspection of the money accounts pertaining to the relief funds appropriated by Congress and which have been disbursed by the following-named officers: Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, deputy surgeon-general; Maj. C. A. Devol, depot quartermaster; Maj. C. R. Krauthoff, Commissary Department; Capt. W. C. Wren, constructing quartermaster; Capt. L. D. Wildman, Signal Corps.

The accuracy of the vouchers has been verified and the legality of the expenditures determined in each and every case.

Suitable methods for protecting the interests of the Government were followed in making purchases, particularly since May 1, 1906. The extreme difficulties attending the making of purchases and the obtaining of services in San Francisco since April 18, 1906, have caused all actions to be necessarily of an emergency character, but proper inspections of materials were made when possible and well known and reliable firms were dealt with when practicable.

In connection with the letter of Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, of June 19, 1906, appended (marked B), investigation showed that the disbursements of the department under Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, deputy surgeon-general, were confined to the payments for services and material strictly pertaining to the Medical Department, especially as to quarters, shelter, etc.

A statement in the case of each separate department is appended hereto (marked C), showing the amount of clerical services and the services not clerical in the different depots and at headquarters Department of California and headquarters Pacific Division, the amount of materials in each case, and the expenditures covering what may be called "permanent improvements." As nearly as was possible these expenditures are given in the aggregate for each month.

Very respectfully,
JOHN P. WISSER,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Artillery Corps,
Acting Inspector-General.
The MILITARY SECRETARY,
Pacific Division.

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A. HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION

San Francisco, Cal., June 25, 1906.
Lieut. Col. J. P. WISSER.

SIR: The division commander desires that you make an inspection of the money accounts pertaining to the relief funds appropriated by Congress and which have been disbursed by the following-named officers: Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, deputy surgeon-general; Maj. C. A. Devol, depot quartermaster; Maj. C. R. Krauthoff, Commissary Department; Capt. L. D. Wildman, Signal Corps.

Your report should cover not only the accuracy of vouchers, but the legality of expenditures, and also whether suitable methods for protecting the interests of the Government were followed in making purchases, particularly since May 1. In regard to the latter-named point, the division commander directs your attention to the extreme difficulties attending the making of purchases and obtaining services in San Francisco since April 18, actions necessarily being of an emergent character in most cases.

In connection with the letter of Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, of June 19, you will particularly examine as to whether Lieutenant-Colonel Brechemin's department's disbursements have been confined to the payments for services and material strictly pertaining to the Medical Department, especially as to quarters, shelter, etc.

It is desired that the statements in the case of each one of the separate departments be segregated so as to show the amount of clerical services and the services not clerical not only in the different depots but at headquarters Department of California and headquarters Pacific Division, and also as to materials purchased and especially in expenditures covering what may be called permanent improvements. Unless you should think other action necessary, these expenditures for the various departments will be given in the aggregate for each month.

Yours, truly,
S. W. DUNNING,
Military Secretary.

B. WAR DEPARTMENT, ARMY MEDICAL SUPPLY DEPOT

Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., June 19, 1906.
The MILITARY SECRETARY,
Pacific Division, Presidio of San Francisco.

SIR: Referring to your letter of June 13, especially that part directing me to pay, out of the allotment to the Medical Department for relief purposes, all expenses relating to transportation for sanitary purposes, all appliances and material heretofore furnished only by the Quartermaster's Department, I have the honor to inform you that such bills are not considered as properly payable by the Medical Department. As I am a disbursing officer of the Medical Department and not of the Quartermaster's Department, I am therefore obliged to decline the payment of these accounts from the special fund allotted

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by the Secretary of War for the Medical Department unless renewal of each specific order is made by the commanding general, Pacific Division. In this connection attention is invited to decision of Second Comptroller, page 234, Davis' Military Laws of the United States, 4th edition.

Very respectfully,
L. BRECHEMIN,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Deputy Surgeon-General, U.S.A.,
In charge of Depot.

C. EXPENDITURES FROM RELIEF FUND.

I. Chief Signal Officer, Department of California. [Capt. L. D. WILDMAN, Signal Corps.]              

 

April. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Total. 

1. Services: 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Clerical 

 

 

 

 

 

(b) Not clerical 

$32.50 

$225.00 

$727.20 

$242.50 

$1,227.20 

2. Material 

 

 

3,735.92 

 

3,735.92 

Total 

32.50 

225.00 

4,463.12 

242.50 

4,963.12 

Of this amount the following was expended in what may be called permanent improvements, $725.
II. Chief Quartermaster, Department of California. [Capt. W. C. WREN, Quartermaster.]              

 

April. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Total. 

1. Services: 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Clerical 

 

 

 

 

 

(b) Not clerical 

$50.00 

 

 

 

$50.00 

2. Material 

 

 

 

 

 

Total 

50.00 

 

 

 

50.00 

No expenditures for permanent improvements.
III. Medical Supply Depot. [Lieut. Col. L. BRECHEMIN, Deputy Surgeon-General.]              

 

April. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Total. 

1. Services: 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Clerical 

 

$988.83 

$4,199.08 

 

$5,187.91 

(b) Not clerical 

 

7,788.94 

3,638.02 

 

11,426.96 

2. Material 

 

8,694.74 

27,489.50 

 

36,184.24 

Total 

 

17,472.51 

35,326.60 

 

52,799.11 

No expenditures for permanent improvements.

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